# Project 2 EECS 370 (Spring 2022)

Worth: 70 Points
Assigned: 7:00 PM ET, Tuesday, May 17
Part 2A Due: 11:55 PM ET, Monday, May 23
Part 2L Due: 11:55 PM ET, Tuesday, May 31

# 0. Starter Code

Starter code for project 2L, the LC2K assembler.

There is no starter code 2A, the project 2 assembler. You should build ontop of your existing project 1 assembler for project 2.

# 1. Purpose

The purpose of this project is to help you understand the assembling and linking process, which we can utilize to create multi-file LC-2K projects, and to help you understand how procedure calls work in assembly language. In order to do this, we will first create a new assembler (P2A) which will take an assembly file as input and output an intermediate object file. Our linker (P2L) will take object file(s) as input and create the final machine code.

# 2. Problem

[[assembly files]] -assembler--> [[object files]] -linker--> [executable]


This project has two parts. In the first part, you will create a program that assembles an assembly file into an object file. The P2A assembler is an extension of the P1A assembler. The key distinction for P2A is that instead of outputting a machine code file, you will output an object file which contains additional information (A header, a symbol table, and a relocation table) to assist in the linking process. In the second, you will write a program to link object files into a single executable consisting of machine code, which your project 1 simulator will be able to run.

In Project 1a, you wrote an assembler which took an LC-2K assembly file as input and produced an executable file as output. This approach is fine if all the code needed is contained in one file, but what happens if we want to use other pieces of code? Libraries contain functions that make coding easier. Splitting code into multiple files encourages modularity and organization. Multiple files are also important for large projects; if you modify one file, you only need to re-assemble that one and then link everything together. Now that we have a better understanding of translation software, we can create a separate assembler and linker.

# 3. Assembler (30 points)

Your new assembler will take in a single assembly file (see section 3.1) as input and output a single object file (see section 3.2).

So far we have created an assembler which can translate assembly language into machine code, which our computers can understand. However, let’s consider a basic program that prints “Hello World”:

#include <stdio.h>
int main(){
printf("Hello World");
return 0;
}


If we were to compile this into assembly, we would need to branch to the printf() function and execute it there. This is great because we don’t need to rewrite printf everytime we create a new project, we can just #include<stdio.h>. However, our current assembler can’t handle undefined references (basically the luxury that #include gives us as programmers). To fix this, we are going to create an assembler that allows for external references (I.e references to labels that are NOT defined locally) and allow for a program called the linker to resolve those undefined external references.

## 3.1. Assembly Files

### 3.1.1 Assembly File Format

Assembly language programs will be of the same format as those from Project 1, with a few extra restrictions.

The first part of the assembly file must contain only assembly instructions. The second part should contain only .fill assembler directives. For example, suppose an assembly file is composed of M instructions and N .fill’s. Lines 0 to (M-1) contain actual instructions, and lines M to (M+N-1) contain .fill’s, with no mixing between them. We refer to all of our instructions as belonging to the Text section of our program. Moreover, everything that contains a .fill statement is considered to be in the Data section of our program. It is important that all of your test cases seperate these two sections such that no .fill statements are in the Text section and no instructions are in the Data section. Below the data section contains the Stack, which is initially empty; for an instruction to access the stack, e.g load a word from the stack, we will use the label Stack to denote the start of the stack section.

### 3.1.2 Local and Global Labels

LC-2K files may now use global symbolic addresses, which means we must now distinguish between local and global labels. The scope of a local label is the file the label is defined in. The scope of a global label is all object files linked together (more on this in part 2l). Because of this, different object files can use local labels with the same name and still be linked together. Local labels will start with a lowercase letter [a, b , ... , z] while global labels start with a capital letter [A, B, ..., Z]. This is unique to LC-2K as a way to distinguish between local and global labels. For example, “staddr” is a local label whereas “Staddr” is a global label.

Local symbolic addresses must be defined at assembly time. However, a global symbolic address can be undefined at assembly time. It is assumed that undefined global labels are defined in another file to be linked at compile time, so they should be temporarily resolved as address 0 in the text and data segments. Defined symbolic addresses should be resolved exactly as they were in Project 1. Moreover, it is entirely possible that a global label is defined and referenced in the same file; if this is the case, the label should be resolved just like a local label. The “Stack” label should be treated as an undefined global label for the purposes of the assembler.

Here is an example of global labels being referenced:

        lw      0       1       Five    load reg1 with 5 (symbolic address)
lw      1       2       3       load reg2 with -1 (numeric address)
start   add     1       2       1       decrement reg1
beq     0       1       2       goto end of program when reg1==0
beq     0       0       start   go back to the beginning of the loop
noop
done    halt                            end of program
Five    .fill   5
neg1    .fill   -1
.fill   Glob
stAddr  .fill   start                   will contain the address of start (2)



Note: if a global label is referenced but NOT defined in a given file, that’s totally fine! We will resolve the symbolic address of any undefined Global label references to be 0. So in the above program, Glob would be resolved to 0 but five would be resolved to 7 as it is defined in this file.

Here is the same example but with global labels being defined:

        lw      0       1       Five    load reg1 with 5 (symbolic address)
lw      1       2       3       load reg2 with -1 (numeric address)
start   add     1       2       1       decrement reg1
beq     0       1       2       goto end of program when reg1==0
beq     0       0       start   go back to the beginning of the loop
noop
done    halt                            end of program
Five    .fill   5
neg1    .fill   -1
.fill   Glob
stAddr  .fill   start                   will contain the address of start (2)



Just like P1A, you can assume assembly files max out at 65536 total instructions and data, although we’ll test you on much, much less than that.

### 3.1.3 LC-2K Peculiarities Part 1

Firstly, if a branch instruction contains a symbolic address, the label it refers to must be a locally defined label. This label can be either a local or global label. Branching to another file (undefined global label) is bad style and makes linking needlessly difficult. A programmer should use jalr in this case. Keep this in mind when considering what to add to the Symbol and Relocation Tables.

Secondly, in LC-2K, loading or storing to an absolute address no longer makes sense. The locations of data and text within the final executable file will likely be different than in the original object file, leading to unintended execution. While this isn’t something we will enforce with error checking, it is recommended that labels are used when dealing with loads and stores. In reality, there are reasons to use absolute addressing: memory mapped IO for example (if you’re curious about this, take EECS 373 shameless plug). If you come across a label with a constant offset, just assemble as you would in Project 1.

Thirdly, local labels do not require symbol table entries. However, a local symbolic address does need a relocation table entry as the address of the local label might change. These addresses can be fixed by calculating the new local label location during linking.

### 3.1.4 Assembly File Format Summary

In summary, assembly file formatting rules are:

1. Do not mix instructions with directives (.fills)
2. Instructions come first
3. Directives (.fills) come second
4. Defined symbolic addresses (defined local and global labels) are resolved exactly as they were in the Project 1 assembler
5. Undefined global symbolic addresses are temporarily resolved as address 0
6. Local labels start with a…z and must be defined at assembly
7. Global labels start with A…Z and can be undefined at assembly
8. Branches cannot use undefined global symbolic addresses
9. Loads and stores should use symbolic addresses (but this is not enforced by the Auto Grader)

## 3.2 Object File Format

Object files will contain the following sections in the following order:

• Header
• Text
• Data
• Symbol table
• Relocation table

** Refer to lecture and discussion for a detailed explanation of each section. **

Table 1: Object file sections

Section Name Number of lines Description
Header Fixed: 1 The Header contains the size, in lines, of the sections to follow. Sizes are listed in the following order, each separated by a space: Text, Data, Symbol table, Relocation table.
Text Variable: t
t = # of instr.
Each line in the Text segment consists of a single machine code instruction, assembled in the same way as instructions in Project 1.
Data Variable: d
d = # of .fills
The Data segment contains data stored by assembler directives, one word of data per line.
Symbol table Variable: s
s = # of global labels + # of Unresolved global symbolic addresses
Each line in the Symbol table consists of a global label, one letter (T/D/U) corresponding to Text, Data, and Undefined respectively, and a line offset from the start of the T/D section (0 if the letter was ‘U’). Each value separated by a space, in that order. Each symbol should only appear once in the symbol table, even if it is used multiple Times. Entries can appear in any order.
Relocation Variable: r
r = # of symbolic addresses used
Each line in the Relocation table consists of a line offset from the start of the T/D section (whichever section the symbol was used in), an opcode, and a label. Each separated by a space, in that order. Entries can appear in any order.

Consider the example:

        lw      0       1       Five    load reg1 with 5 (symbolic address)
lw      1       2       3       load reg2 with -1 (numeric address)
start   add     1       2       1       decrement reg1
beq     0       1       2       goto end of program when reg1==0
beq     0       0       start   go back to the beginning of the loop
noop
done    halt                            end of program
Five    .fill   5
neg1    .fill   -1
.fill   Glob
stAddr  .fill   start                   will contain the address of start (2)


        lw      0       1       Five    load reg1 with 5 (symbolic address)
lw      1       2       3       load reg2 with -1 (numeric address)
start   add     1       2       1       decrement reg1
beq     0       1       2       goto end of program when reg1==0
beq     0       0       start   go back to the beginning of the loop
noop
done    halt                            end of program
Five    .fill   5
neg1    .fill   -1
.fill   Glob
stAddr  .fill   start                   will contain the address of start (2)


        lw      0       1       Five    load reg1 with 5 (symbolic address)
lw      1       2       3       load reg2 with -1 (numeric address)
start   add     1       2       1       decrement reg1
beq     0       1       2       goto end of program when reg1==0
beq     0       0       start   go back to the beginning of the loop
noop
done    halt                            end of program
Five    .fill   5
neg1    .fill   -1
.fill   Glob
stAddr  .fill   start                   will contain the address of start (2)



We add Five D 0 to the symbol table as this is defining the location of a Global Label. We add Glob U 0 to the symbol table as Glob is not defined in this file and will need to be resolved in linking. We Don’t add Five T 0 to the symbol table as Five is defined in this file (hence why we have Five D 0 in the symbol table).

        lw      0       1       Five    load reg1 with 5 (symbolic address)
lw      1       2       3       load reg2 with -1 (numeric address)
start   add     1       2       1       decrement reg1
beq     0       1       2       goto end of program when reg1==0
beq     0       0       start   go back to the beginning of the loop
noop
done    halt                            end of program
Five    .fill   5
neg1    .fill   -1
.fill   Glob
stAddr  .fill   start                   will contain the address of start (2)



We add 0 LW Five to the relocation table as the memory address of Five can change during linking. We add 2 .fill Glob to the relocation table as the memory address of Glob can change during linking (and in this case, Glob is currently resolved to 0 as it is undefined in this file). We add 3 .fill start to the relocation table as the memory address of start can change during linking. We DONT add 4 beq start to the relocation table as beq is only allowed to branch to local labels defined in it’s data section. Since beq is PC-Relative, the change in our PC remains constant, even after linking.

Note: We don’t add labels from BEQ to the symbol table as those can only branch to text inside that same file and since BEQ is PC relative, no update is needed.

#### IMPORTANT FORMATTING NOTES:

1. Assembly code in text should be assembled EXACTLY as it was for project 1. This means symbolic addresses are resolved the same, with the exception of undefined global symbolic addresses which are temporarily assembled as 0.

2. Offsets in the Symbol and Relocation Tables indicate the line offset of the label from the start of either the Text or the Data section (whichever the section the label appears in).

For example, the symbol table entry Foo D 0 indicates the label Foo is defined on the zeroth line in the Data section. The relocation table entry 4 lw Foo indicates the symbolic address Foo is used on the fourth line (zero indexed) of the Text section by a lw instruction.

## 3.3 Error Checking

Your assembler should catch the following errors in assembly files:

1. Duplicate defined labels (same local or global label within one assembly file)
2. Undefined local symbolic address
3. beq using an undefined global symbolic address
4. offsetFields that don’t fit in 16 bits
5. Unrecognized opcodes

Your assembler should exit(1) if it detects an error and exit(0) if it finishes without detecting any errors. Your assembler should NOT catch simulation-time errors, i.e. errors that would occur at the time the assembly-language program executes (e.g. branching to address -1, infinite loops, etc.).

## 3.4 Assembly example

Please see section 9 example 2a.

## 3.5 Running Your Assembler

Write your program to take two command-line arguments. The first argument is the filename where the assembly-language program is stored, and the second argument is the filename where the output (the object file) is written. For example, with a program name of assemble, an assembly-language program in program.as, the following would generate an object file program.obj:

./assemble program.as program.obj


Note that the format for running the command must use command-line arguments for the file names (rather than standard input and standard output). Your program should store only object files in the format specified above. Any deviation from this format (e.g. extra spaces or empty lines) will render your machine-code file ungradable. Any other output that you want the program to generate (e.g. debugging output) can be printed to standard output.

## 3.6 Test Cases

The test cases for the assembler part of this project will be short assembly-language programs that serve as input to an assembler. You will submit your suite of test cases together with your assembler, and we will grade your test suite according to how thoroughly it exercises an assembler. Each test case may be at most 50 lines long, and your test suite may contain up to 20 test cases. These limits are much larger than needed for full credit (the solution test suite is composed of 5 test cases, each < 10 lines long). See section 7 for how your test suite will be graded.

Hint: The example assembly-language program (Example 2a) in section 9 is a good case to include in your test suite, though you’ll need to write more test cases to get full credit. Remember to create some test cases that test the ability of an assembler to check for the errors in section 3.3.

# 4. Linker (40 points)

Now that you’ve written an assembler to create object files, you need a way to link these files together. In this part of the project, you will write a linker to combine multiple object files into a single executable. This final executable will be backwards compatible with the simulator from project 1.

## 4.0.1 Motivation:

Here is an example that will help explain the purpose of the linker

       lw       0        1       Data           //Reg1 = 'unknown'
lw       0        2       value          //Reg2 = 15
add      1        2       3              //Add Data and Value int reg 3
halt
value .fill value 15

        lw      0       4       Data            //Load Reg 4 with 5
Data    .fill 5


Here, we have two basic programs. File 1 takes two numbers located at ‘Data’ and ‘value’ and adds them together into Reg3. The expected value of Reg3 is 20. Even thogh File 1 tries to access ‘Data’, which isn’t defined in File 1, we still allow this as we can link File 1 and File 2 together!

The linked result would look like this:

Note: Linking should operate on machine code files from your P2A assembler, NOT assembly Code. The above example is just for visual understanding!

Note: we would procude a Machine Code file with the linking process, NOT an assembly file. This is just an example of how linking would look visually

       lw       0        1       Data           //Reg1 = 'unknown'
lw       0        2       value          //Reg2 = 15
add      1        2       3              //Add Data and Value int reg 3
halt
lw      0       4       Data            //Load Reg 4 with 5
value .fill value 15
Data    .fill 5

       lw       0        1       Data           //Reg1 = 'unknown'
lw       0        2       value          //Reg2 = 15
add      1        2       3              //Add Data and Value int reg 3
halt
lw      0       4       Data            //Load Reg 4 with 5
value .fill value 15
Data    .fill 5


## 4.1 LC-2K linker description

Your linker should be able to take an arbitrary number of object files as input. It will concatenate all text and data segments within each object file, creating one unified executable. Segments should be combined in the order they appear as arguments. The combined text section should be placed before the combined data section. Then, for each object file, the linker iterates through their relocation table. For each relocation entry, the linker iterates through all symbol table entries to locate the label and fix the reference. The final executable will be a machine code file.

## 4.2 What about main()?

You might be asking yourself, what will be executed first? Shouldn’t there be a main() function or label?

To simplify the process of linking and simulating, LC-2K code is executed starting at the first line in a machine code file. In order to specify what object file should execute first, ordering of the linker’s arguments is needed. This means that our main will be the first file provided to the linker

./linker file_0.obj file_1.obj ... file_N.obj machine_code.mc


Generically, our single executable will be laid out according to the diagram below. This is assuming we are linking N files together, where file_0 is the first file passed into our linker and file_N is the last file passed into our linker.

_______ generic_code.mc __________
<file_0.obj> TEXT
<file_1.obj> TEXT
.
.
.
<file_N.obj> TEXT
<file_0.obj> DATA
<file_1.obj> DATA
.
.
.
<file_N.obj> DATA


For more information on the linker’s command line arguments, please see section 4.7. For more information on how linker’s actually handle this, see section 4.4.

## 4.3 Stack Label

As discussed in lecture, programs build up stack frames as they execute. The stack is important for storing data that can’t fit within a machine’s registers, such as stack frames and local data. As seen in the below example, this is done by using a global label Stack.

Here is a small LC-2K program that uses a subroutine call. It takes an argument in register 1 and calls a subroutine to compute the quantity 4*input. Register 1 is used to pass input to the subroutine; register 3 is used by the subroutine to pass the result back. The current top-of-stack (first empty location) is given by Stack + register 5.

        lw         0        1      input        r1 = memory[input]
lw         0        4      SubAdr       prepare to call sub4n. r4=addr(sub4n)
jalr       4        7                   call sub4n; r7=return address r3=answer
halt
input   .fill      10


sub4n   lw          0       6       pos1        r6 = 1
sw          5       7       Stack       save return address on stack
add         5       6       5           increment stack pointer
sw          5       1       Stack       save input on stack
add         5       6       5           increment stack pointer
add         1       1       1           compute 2*input
add         1       1       3           compute 4*input into return value
lw          0       6       neg1        r6 = -1
add         5       6       5           decrement stack pointer
lw          5       1       Stack       recover original input
add         5       6       5           decrement stack pointer
lw          5       7       Stack       recover original return address
jalr        7       4                   return.  r4 is not restored.
pos1    .fill       1
neg1    .fill       -1
SubAdr  .fill       sub4n                         contains the address of sub4n



The stack array starts at the implicit label Stack and extends to larger addresses, which is why the linker inserts the Stack label as the last line in the final executable..

In LC-2K, the Stack label is a special label that should not be defined by any object file, but it can be used as a symbolic address. This label is inserted by the linker and should refer to the line after the last piece of data in the data segment. For example, if there are M instructions and N pieces of data in the final executable, the linker should resolve the symbolic address, Stack, as (M + N). This allows the stack to grow without affecting the instructions or data.

## 4.4 LC-2K Peculiarities Part 2

Programming languages often specify where to begin executing. In reality, a linker typically inserts an object file into the linking process. This inserted code appears first and jumps to a specified function to begin executing the program, among doing other things. The LC-2K method of ordering files during the linking process to indicate what to execute first is a simplification.

LC-2K also lacks a proper function call instruction that jumps to labels. It instead jumps to registers that hold function addresses (so the register is a function pointer). This means that a function can have a local label, yet still be accessible from other files, so long as the function pointer is global. Linking should still succeed in this case.

Additionally, LC-2K’s use of the Stack label doesn’t reflect how all assembly languages use the stack. ARM, for example, has special instructions such as push and pop that directly interface with the stack, providing a layer of abstraction to assembly programmers. The stack is typically allocated by an operating system that passes the stack pointer to an executing program.

## 4.5 Error Checking

Your linker should catch the following errors:

1. duplicate defined global labels
2. undefined global labels
3. Stack label defined by an object file

Your linker can assume that any object file used as input is properly formatted.

## 4.6 Tip - Local Labels

Fixing local symbolic addresses during linking can be tricky, since we don’t have symbol table entries associated with them. It might help to store certain data for each file read in: text size, data size, text starting location (in final mc), and data starting location (in final mc). By also storing which file each relocation table entry is in, you should have all the data needed to adjust each local symbolic address.

Actually fixing a local symbolic address in the relocation involves several steps. First, identify which section of the file the label is in, either text or data. Second, parse the original symbolic address value from the instruction referenced by the relocation entry. Fix this value by adding an offset to the address, to account for the new location of the local label.

## 4.7 Linker Example

Please see section 9 example 2l.

## 4.8 Running Your Linker

Write your program to take N command-line arguments, where N >= 2. The first argument is the object file to execute first, arguments 2 through N-1 are additional object files (these are not required), and the Nth argument is the filename where the machine code output is written. For example, with a program name of linker and an assembly-language program in prog_1.obj and prog_2.obj, the machine code file prog.mc will be generated:

./assemble prog_1.obj prog_2.obj prog.mc


The number of object files your linker must be able to link together is between 1 and 6. If a program is self-contained within one object file, your linker should still be able to translate it into a machine code file. We will not test you on linking more than 6 object files.

Note that the format for running the linker must use command-line arguments for file names (rather than standard input and standard output). Your program should store only machine-code in the format specified above. Any deviation from this format (e.g. extra spaces or empty lines) will render your machine-code file ungradable. Any other output that you want the program to generate (e.g. debugging output) can be printed to standard output.

## 4.9 Test Cases

Test cases for the linker part of this project will be short, valid assembly-language programs that, after being assembled into object files, serve as input to a linker. You will submit a suite of test cases together with your linker, and we will grade your test suite according to how thoroughly it exercises an LC-2K linker. Each test assembly file may be at most 50 lines long, and your test suite may contain up to 20 test cases. A test can contain no more than 6 assembly files to be linked together. These limits are much larger than needed for full credit. See Section 7 for how your test suite will be graded.

A naming scheme is needed to specify what test assembly files should be linked together. A single “test” refers to a group of 1 or more assembly files to be linked together. The naming scheme is as follows.

<test name>_<{0, …, N}>.as


All tests with the same test name will be assembled and linked together (do not include angled brackets in the test name). An underscore character, ‘_’, separates the test name and the assembly file’s number (do not include angled brackets or curly brackets in the number). Assembly files within the same test should be numbered starting at zero, with the zeroth assembly file being the first code to be executed.

The following testcases:

test_0.as test_1.as test_2.as anotherTest_0.as anotherTest_1.as


Will be assembled and then linked by the autograder as follows:

./linker test_0.obj test_1.obj test_2.obj test.mc
./linker anotherTest_0.obj anotherTest_1.obj anotherTest.mc


DO NOT use more than one underscore in your test case names. We will not grade your test case if you do. File names CANNOT have spaces in them.

Remember to create some test cases that test the ability of a linker to check for the errors in Section 4.5.

# 5. Compiling the Project

Your code will be compiled with the GCC compiler using the C99 standard. The following bash command compiles program.c and writes the executable into program. You are allowed to use any standard C libraries which compile with the specified flags below.

gcc -std=c99 program.c -o program


# 6. Grading, Auto-Grading, and Formatting

We will grade primarily on functionality, including error handling, correct assembly, and comprehensiveness of the test suites.

To help you validate your project, your submission will be graded automatically, and the result will be available on the auto grader. You may then continue to work on the project and re-submit. To deter you from using the autograder as a debugger, you will receive feedback from the autograder only for the first THREE SUBMISSIONS for each project part on any given day. All subsequent submissions will be silently graded (this means the submission will be graded, but you will not have access to the grade nor the results of your submission). Your final score will be derived from your overall best submission to the autograder.

The feedback from the autograder will not be very illuminating; it won’t tell you where your problem is or give you the test programs. The purpose of the autograder is to let you know that you should keep working on your project (rather than thinking it’s perfect and ending up with a 0). The best way to debug your program is to generate your own test cases, figure out the correct answers, and compare your program’s output to the correct answer. This is also one of the best ways to learn the concepts in the project.

The student suites of test cases will be graded according to how thoroughly they test both the assembler (for part 2a) and linker (for part 2l). We will judge thoroughness of the test suites by how well they expose potential bugs. That is, the test suites are graded based on how many of the buggy assemblers / linkers were exposed by at least one test case. This is known as mutation testing in the research literature on automated testing.

For the assembler test suite, the auto-grader will use each test case as input to a set of buggy assemblers. A test case exposes a buggy assembler by causing it to generate a different answer from a correct assembler. Your test suite is run on 12 buggy assemblers. To receive all Mutation Testing points A total of 5 points, your test suite must expose at least 10/12 of the buggy assemblers.

For the linker test suite, the auto-grader will first assemble the test files and use them as input to a set of buggy linkers. A test case exposes a buggy linker by causing it to generate a different answer from a correct linker. Test cases must use the naming scheme specified in section 4.9. Your test suite is run on 9 buggy linkers. To receive all Mutation Testing points A total of 7 points, your test suite must expose at least 7/9 of the buggy linkers.

# 7. Turning in the Project

Use autograder.io to submit your files. You have been added as a student to the class, so you should see EECS 370 listed as a class.

Here are the files you should submit for each project part:

1. assembler (part 2a)
a. C program for your assembler called "assembler.c"
b. Suite of test cases (each test case is an assembly-language program
in a separate file, ending in ".as". File names CANNOT have spaces in them.)

2. linker (part 2l)
a. C program for your linker called "linker.c"
b. Suite of test cases (each test case is a set of assembly-language programs
using the naming scheme specified in [section 4.9]. and ending in ".as". File names CANNOT have spaces in them.)



# 8. Sample Test Cases

### Example 2a

Here is a multi-file assembly-language program that counts down from 5, stopping when it hits 0, and then halts:

main.as:

        lw          0       1       five
lw          0       4       SubAdr
start   jalr        4       7
beq         0       1       done
beq         0       0       start
done    halt
five    .fill       5



subone.as:

subOne  lw          0       2       neg1
add         1       2       1
jalr        7       6
neg1    .fill       -1
SubAdr  .fill       subOne



And here are the corresponding object files after running the following lines of code:

./assembler main.as main.obj
./assembler subone.as subone.obj


WARNING: Text within parenthesis SHOULD NOT be included in your assembler’s or linker’s output.

main.obj:

6 1 1 2                 (Header)
8454150                 (Text)
8650752
23527424
16842753
16842749
25165824
5                       (Data)
SubAdr U 0              (Symbol Table)
0 lw five               (Relocation Table)
1 lw SubAdr



subone.obj:

3 2 1 2                 (Header)
8519683                 (Text)
655361
25034752
-1                      (Data)
0
SubAdr D 1              (Symbol Table)
0 lw neg1               (Relocation Table)
1 .fill subOne



WARNING: Be careful when copying and editing these examples!

### Example 2l

This example uses the object files from example 2a. Here is the machine code produced after the linking process:

./linker main.obj subone.obj count5.mc


count5.mc:

8454153             (main.as TEXT)
8650763
23527424
16842753
16842749
25165824
8519690             (subone.as TEXT)
655361
25034752
5                   (main.as DATA)
-1                  (subone.as DATA)
6



This code can be simulated using your project 1 simulator.

WARNING: Be careful when copying and editing these examples!

# 9. Linker Starter code

Referenced starter code is meant to help you read in and parse object files. It is probably a good idea to break it up into different functions, but is a good place to get started.

NOTE: Please see starter file.